The London Portal

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core and financial centre − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that closely follow its medieval limits. The adjacent City of Westminster is an Inner London borough and has for centuries been the location of much of the national government. Thirty one additional boroughs north and south of the river also comprise modern London. London is governed by the mayor of London and the London Assembly.

London is one of the world's most important global cities and has been called the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment-friendly, and most-popular-for-work city. It exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. London ranks 26th out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP. It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers than any other city. As of 2020, London has the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe, after Moscow. In 2019, London had the highest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals in Europe. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and London is home to highly ranked institutions such as Imperial College London in natural and applied sciences, and the London School of Economics in social sciences. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,908,081, the third-most populous of any city in Europe and accounts for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the third most populous in Europe, after Moscow and Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The London commuter belt is the second-most populous in Europe, after the Moscow Metropolitan Area, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.

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Skull and crossbones and an expired hourglass, surrounded by a snake eating its own tail (ouroboros)
Seal of the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company

The London Necropolis Company (LNC), formally the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company until 1927, was a cemetery operator established by Act of Parliament in 1852 in reaction to the crisis caused by the closure of London's graveyards in 1851. The LNC intended to establish a single cemetery large enough to accommodate all of London's future burials in perpetuity. The company's founders recognised that the recently invented technology of the railway provided the ability to conduct burials a long distance from populated areas, mitigating concerns over public health risks from living near burial sites. Accordingly, the company bought a very large tract of land in Brookwood, Surrey, around 25 miles (40 km) from London, and converted a portion of it into Brookwood Cemetery. A dedicated railway line, the London Necropolis Railway, linked the new cemetery to the city.

Financial mismanagement and internal disputes led to delays in the project. By the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in late 1854, a number of other cemeteries had opened nearer to London or were in the process of opening. While some parishes in London did arrange for the LNC to handle the burials of their dead, many preferred to use nearer cemeteries. The LNC had anticipated handling between 10,000 and 50,000 burials per year, but the number never rose above 4,100 per year, and in its first 150 years of operations only 231,730 burials had been conducted. Buying the land for Brookwood Cemetery and building the cemetery and railway had been very expensive, and by the time the cemetery opened the LNC was already on the verge of bankruptcy. The LNC remained solvent by selling surplus parts of its land, but as the land had been chosen in the first place for its remoteness, sales were low. Read more...

Featured picture

Royal Albert Hall, London - Nov 2012.jpg
Photo credit: David Iliff

The Royal Albert Hall, as viewed from the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. The Royal Albert Hall, built 1867–71, is a concert hall in South Kensington best known for holding the annual summer Proms concerts since 1941. With the Albert Memorial the Hall forms part of the national memorial to Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria.

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Bowie smiling
Bowie in Tinley Park, Illinois, during the Heathen Tour, 2002

David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie (/ˈbi/ BOH-ee), was an English singer-songwriter and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. He was acclaimed by critics and musicians, particularly for his innovative work during the 1970s. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at over 100 million records worldwide, made him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, and released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received five platinum and nine gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Rolling Stone placed him among its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and following his death in 2016, Bowie was dubbed "The Greatest Rock Star Ever" by the magazine.

Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969. After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul", initially alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, and released Station to Station. In 1977, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" (1977) and Lodger (1979) followed; each album reached the UK top five and received lasting critical praise. Read more...

Selected quotation

Percy Bysshe Shelley. From a letter to Maria Gisborne (1820).

Did you know...

St Martin's Theatre, Covent Garden, London-2April2010.jpg
  • ... that the Peacock Theatre is believed to be haunted by the ghost of a dolphin called "Flipper"?

General images

The following are images from various London-related articles on Wikipedia.


London has one of the oldest and largest public transport systems in the world. Many components of its transport system, such as the double-decker bus, the Hackney Carriage black taxi and the Tube, are internationally recognised symbols of London.

The majority of transport services in the capital are provided by Transport for London (TfL), an executive agency of the Mayor of London. The Oyster card is accepted as payment across most TfL-controlled transport modes. In the past ten years TfL has invested heavily in walking and cycling to promote more sustainable travel choices in London, including a Velib-style bike hire scheme which opened in Summer 2010.

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London has a comprehensive rail network with several major railway stations. London has two international train stations, at St. Pancras railway station and Stratford International, which connect London to mainland Europe through the Eurostar service. London also has six international airports.

In addition to public transport, London is the start point for a number of motorway routes. The M25 is an orbital motorway which enables vehicles to avoid travelling through central London and is one of the busiest motorways in Europe.

Wikipedia Recognised content on London

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1908 Summer Olympics medal table · 1910 London to Manchester air race · 1948 Summer Olympics medal table · 1993 Boat Race · 2003 Boat Race · 2012 Boat Race · Albert Bridge · Aldwych tube station · Anne of Denmark · Harriet Arbuthnot · Arsenal F.C. · History of Arsenal F.C. (1886–1966) · Albert Stanley, 1st Baron Ashfield · Alice Ayres · Baden-Powell House · BAE Systems · Baker Street and Waterloo Railway · Enid Blyton · Battersea Bridge · Battle of Barnet · Horatio Bottomley · David Bowie · Boydell Shakespeare Gallery · Brown Dog affair · Bruce Castle · Buckingham Palace · William Henry Bury · Kate Bush · Elizabeth Canning · Caroline of Ansbach · Central London Railway · Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway · Charles II of England · Chief Mouser to the Cabinet Office · Chelsea Bridge · Chelsea F.C. · Christopher Smart's asylum confinement · Churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in Southeast England · City and South London Railway · Cleveland Street scandal · Cock Lane ghost · Covent Garden · Noël Coward · Charles Darwin · East End of London · Edward III of England · Edward VI of England · Elizabeth I of England · English National Opera · Edmund Evans · An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump · Gilbert Foliot · Former and unopened London Underground stations · Robin Friday · Prince George of Denmark · George IV of the United Kingdom · John Gielgud · Gray's Inn · Great Fire of London · Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway · Great Stink · Stanley Green · Joseph Grimaldi · Gropecunt Lane · Richard Hakluyt · Harris's List of Covent Garden Ladies · Death of Jimi Hendrix · Her Majesty's Theatre · Herne Hill railway station · Georgette Heyer · Henry III of England · Charles Holden · Hoxne Hoard · Len Hutton · Iranian Embassy siege · Jack the Ripper · Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution · Hattie Jacques · James VI and I · Samuel Johnson · Early life of Samuel Johnson · The Kinks · Cosmo Gordon Lang · George Lansbury · Dan Leno · Marie Lloyd · Local nature reserves in Greater London · London Necropolis Company · London Underground stations · John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan · The Magdalen Reading · Marshalsea · Mary II of England · Mellitus · Memorial to Heroic Self-Sacrifice · Metropolitan Railway · Henry Moore · Motörhead · Noel Park · Laurence Olivier · Emmeline Pankhurst · Peep Show episodes · Frank Pick · Peasants' Revolt · Pig-faced women · Harold Pinter · Postman's Park · Queens Park Rangers F.C. players · RAF Northolt · RAF Uxbridge · Talbot Baines Reed · Restoration spectacular · Richard II of England · Ralph Richardson · Richmond Bridge · Robert of Jumièges · Rokeby Venus · Rosetta Stone · Royal Gold Cup · Royal National College for the Blind · The Royal Opera · Sex Pistols · William Shakespeare · Jack Sheppard · Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London · Edgar Speyer · Streatham portrait · Tallest buildings and structures in London · Terry-Thomas · Theatre Royal, Drury Lane · Murder of Julia Martha Thomas · Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion · Timeline of the London Underground · Death of Ian Tomlinson · Tower of London · Turner Prize winners and nominees · Dick Turpin · Underground Electric Railways Company of London · Vauxhall Bridge · Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics · Wandsworth Bridge · Whitechapel Murders · William Wilberforce · William III of England · William the Conqueror · Winners of the London Marathon · Mary Wollstonecraft · Timeline of Mary Wollstonecraft · Henry Wood

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1836 Boat Race · 1839 Boat Race · 1840 Boat Race · 1841 Boat Race · 1842 Boat Race · 1845 Boat Race · 1846 Boat Race · 1849 (March) Boat Race · 1849 (December) Boat Race · 1852 Boat Race · 1854 Boat Race · 1856 Boat Race · 1857 Boat Race · 1860 Boat Race · 1861 Boat Race · 1866 Boat Race · 1867 Boat Race · 1868 Boat Race · 1869 Boat Race · 1870 Boat Race · 1871 Boat Race · 1873 Boat Race · 1875 Boat Race · 1876 Boat Race · 1878 Boat Race · 1880 Boat Race · 1881 Boat Race · 1882 Boat Race · 1883 Boat Race · 1884 Boat Race · 1888 Boat Race · 1889 Boat Race · 1890 Boat Race · 1891 Boat Race · 1892 Boat Race · 1893 Boat Race · 1894 Boat Race · 1897 Boat Race · 1898 Boat Race · 1899 Boat Race · 1901 Boat Race · 1903 Boat Race · 1904 Boat Race · 1905 Boat Race · 1906 Boat Race · 1907 Boat Race · 1908 Boat Race · 1909 Boat Race · 1911 Boat Race · 1920 Boat Race · 1921 Boat Race · 1922 Boat Race · 1923 Boat Race · 1924 Boat Race · 1925 Boat Race · 1927 Boat Race · 1928 Boat Race · 1929 Boat Race · 1930 Boat Race · 1932 Boat Race · 1948 Summer Olympics torch relay · 1950 Boat Race · 1951 Boat Race · 1952 Boat Race · 1953 Boat Race · 1954 Boat Race · 1955 Boat Race · 1956 Boat Race · 1957 Boat Race · 1958 Boat Race · 1961 Boat Race · 1963 Boat Race · 1964 Boat Race · 1965 Boat Race · 1966 Boat Race · 1967 Football League Cup Final · 1968 Boat Race · 1970 Boat Race · 1971 Boat Race · 1973 Boat Race · 1974 Boat Race · 1975 Boat Race · 1976 Boat Race · 1977 Boat Race · 1978 Boat Race · 1979 Boat Race · 1980 Boat Race · 1981 Boat Race · 1982 Boat Race · 1983 Boat Race · 1984 Boat Race · 1985 Boat Race · 1986 Boat Race · 1987 Boat Race · 1988 Boat Race · 1989 Boat Race · 1990 Boat Race · 1991 Boat Race · 1992 Boat Race · 1993 Bishopsgate bombing · 1994 Boat Race · 1995 Boat Race · 1996 Boat Race · 1997 Boat Race · 1997–98 Arsenal F.C. season · 1998 Boat Race · 1999 Boat Race · 1999 FA Charity Shield · 2000 Boat Race · 2001 Boat Race · 2002 Boat Race · 2003 Boat Race · 2004 Boat Race · 2005 Boat Race · 2006 Boat Race · 2007 Boat Race · 2008 Boat Race · 2009 Boat Race · 2010 Boat Race · 2011 Boat Race · 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony · 2012 Summer Paralympics · 2013 Boat Race · 2014 Boat Race · 34 Montagu Square, Marylebone · A1 road in London · A215 road · Abbey Mills Mosque · Henry Allingham · Murder of Tom ap Rhys Pryce · Arsenal Stadium · Cicely Mary Barker · Joey Barton · Battersea Power Station · Baynard's Castle · BBC Symphony Orchestra · Kate Beckinsale · Belgian government in exile · Tony Benn · The Bill · Blackadder II · Blackwall Tunnel · Bloc Party · BOAC Flight 712 · Ernest Radcliffe Bond · James Bond · Boosey & Hawkes · Bow Back Rivers · John Boydell · British Airways · History of British Airways · British Asian Cup · British Library · Burney Relief · Cad and the Dandy · Cannons (house) · Casino Royale (1967 film) · Chiswick Bridge · Anjem Choudray · Churchill War Rooms · City of London School · The Clash · Murder of Victoria Climbié · Coldplay · College of Arms · Cranham · Elizabeth Cresswell · Charles Cruft · Crystal Palace · Crystal Palace Dinosaurs · Crystal Palace F.C. · History of Crystal Palace F.C. · Cyrus Cylinder · Daniel Day-Lewis · Death of Keith Blakelock · Denmark Street · Deptford · Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge · Dinner by Heston Blumenthal · District Railway · Doctor Who Prom (2008) · Doomsday(film) · The Dorchester · Down Street tube station · Dubstep · Dunstan · Eastcote House Gardens · Edward I of England · Embankment tube station · Emirates Stadium · Leo Fortune-West · Garrick's Temple to Shakespeare · Girlschool · Gloucester Road tube station · Mauricio González-Gordon y Díez · Gordon Ramsay Plane Food · Great Plague of London · Hugh Grant · Great Reality TV Swindle · Green Wing · George Grossmith · Gulf Oil · HMS Belfast (C35) · Hammerton's Ferry · Harmondsworth Great Barn · Hibiscus (restaurant) · Highgrove House, Eastcote · Hillingdon House · Holborn tube station · Edward Hollamby · Hot Fuzz · Anne Hyde · Ickenham · Imperial War Museum · Inns of Chancery · Iron Maiden · Jewel Tower · Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... · Kingstonian F.C. · Knife Edge Two Piece 1962–65 · Nigella Lawson · Lemmons · Bernard Levin · Ken Livingstone · London · London Necropolis Railway · London Necropolis railway station · London Philharmonic Orchestra · London Symphony Orchestra · M11 link road protest · Madness (band) · Manor Farm, Ruislip · George Martin · Karl Marx · Mary I of England · Match Point · Freddie Mercury · Middlesex · Ed Miliband · Millwall F.C. · Millwall F.C.–West Ham United F.C. rivalry · Mongrels (TV series) · Morden tube station · William Morris · Carey Mulligan · National Gallery · National Police Memorial · NatWest · Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson · Isaac Newton · Notting Hill · Old St Paul's Cathedral · One Direction · Paper War of 1752–1753 · Charles Pearson · Pétrus (restaurant) · Prince Rupert of the Rhine · Quatermass and the Pit (film) · Queen's Hall · Question Time British National Party controversy · Daniel Radcliffe · RAF Eastcote · RAF West Ruislip · Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes · Richard Coeur de Lion (statue) · Richmond Park · Rock and Chips · Helen Rollason · Romford · Rose Tyler · Royal Artillery Memorial · Royal Philharmonic Orchestra · Royal Society · Ruislip · Ruislip-Northwood Urban District · Ruislip Woods · The Sarah Jane Adventures · Saturday (novel) · Savile Row · Senate House (University of London) · Serpentine (lake) · George Bernard Shaw · Smithfield, London · Smooth Radio (2010) · South Kensington tube station · Howard Staunton · Jamie Stuart · Jessie Stephen · The Stones in the Park · Arthur Sullivan · Swakeleys House · Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film) · Tipping the Velvet · Tipu's Tiger · The Tower House · Margaret Thatcher · Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard · Alan Turing · Up All Night Tour · Upminster · Upminster Bridge tube station · Uxbridge · V for Vendetta (film) · Vauxhall Gardens · Vindolanda tablets · Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps · Wanderers F.C. · Rachel Weisz · West Ham United F.C. · Westminster tube station · The Who · Oscar Wilde · Amy Winehouse · White Lies (band) · Wimbledon and Sutton Railway · Anna Wintour · Woolwich Ferry · Wulfstan · The Young Victoria

London Topics


WikiProject London

Simplified aims - (read more here):

Current major tasks:

  • Tag all relevant articles with the {{WPLondon}} template on their talk page.
  • Improve main article London to featured status.

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