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|Mobile phone generations|
Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were:
- Digitally encrypted phone conversations, at least between the mobile phone and the cellular base station but not necessarily in the rest of the network.
- Significantly more efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum enabling more users per frequency band.
- Data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.
2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages).
After 2G was launched, the previous mobile wireless network systems were retroactively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the devices) to the rest of the mobile system.
With General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 2G offers a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 40 kbit/s. With EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 384 kbit/s.
The most common 2G technology was the time division multiple access (TDMA)-based GSM, originally from Europe but used in most of the world outside Japan and North America. In North America, Digital AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136) and cdmaOne (IS-95) were the main systems. In Japan, the ubiquitously deployed system was Personal Digital Cellular (PDC).
2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It doesn't necessarily provide faster service because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well.
GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. While the symbol rate remained the same at 270.833 samples per second, each symbol carried three bits instead of one. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003, initially by AT&T in the United States.
2G, understood as GSM and CDMA, has been superseded by newer technologies such as 3G (UMTS / CDMA2000), 4G (LTE) and 5G; however, 2G networks are still used in most parts of Europe, Africa, Central America and South America, and many modern LTE-enabled devices are known to still fallback to 2G for phone calls, especially in rural areas. In some places, its successor 3G is being shut down rather than 2G – Vodafone announced that it will switch off 3G across Europe in 2020 but retain 2G as a fallback service.
Various carriers have made announcements that 2G technology in the United States, Japan, Australia, and other countries is in the process of being shut down, or have already shut down 2G services so that carriers can reclaim those radio bands and re-purpose them for newer technologies (e.g. 4G LTE).
In some parts of the world, including the United Kingdom, 2G remains widely used for dumbphones, and for internet of things (IoT) devices where the high patent licensing cost of newer technologies makes them prohibitive, such as smart meters, eCall systems and vehicle tracking devices. Terminating 2G services could leave vulnerable people who rely on 2G infrastructure without means to access emergency contacts, leading to preventable deaths.
Past 2G networks
|Country||Network||Total decommission date||Details|
|Australia||Optus||2017||Optus shut down 2G in Western Australia and Northern Territory on 3 April 2017 and completed the shutdown within the rest of Australia on 1 August 2017.|
|Telstra||2016||Telstra closed their GSM network on 1 December 2016, being the first mobile provider in Australia to switch off 2G.|
|Vodafone||2018||Vodafone closed their legacy GSM network on 30 June 2018.|
|India||Airtel||No plan to shut down 2G.||Bharti Airtel, the second largest carrier in India, shut down their 3G network. while they have no plans to shut down 2G services.|
|Reliance||2017||Reliance Communications, a group led by Reliance ADAG, decided to shut down their entire 2G network at the end of November 2017. It is the first operator in the country to do so.|
|Japan||au KDDI||22 July 2012||Qualcomm cdmaOne standard|
|NTT Docomo||31 March 2012||PDC standard, not compatible with GSM|
|Softbank||31 March 2010|
|South Korea||KT||19 March 2012|||
|LG Uplus||30 June 2021 (TBC)|||
|SK Telecom||27 July 2020|||
|Mexico||AT&T Mexico||2020||AT&T Mexico has started the shutdown of their 2G network on the country.|
|Movistar||Movistar Mexico started the shutdown of their 2G network in April 2019.|
|Netherlands||T-Mobile||15 November 2020 (TBC)||T-Mobile Netherlands will shut down 2G services by 15 November 2020.|
|New Zealand||2degrees||2018||2degrees shut down their 2G network on 15 March 2018.|
|Spark (CDMA)||2012||Spark's 2G network (CDMA) was shut down on 31 July 2012. Spark now operates 3G and 4G networks, and was the first mobile provider in New Zealand to switch off 2G.|
|2018||, partnered with 2degrees, shut their 2G network down in March 2018, to make way for the new 4G network.|
|Singapore||M1||1 April 2017|||
|Switzerland||Sunrise||2024||Sunrise Communications AG originally announced plans to phase out their GSM network by the end of 2018, but decided to postpone the phaseout to 2024.|
|Swisscom||2021||Telecommunications in Switzerland is mainly operated by state-owned Swisscom, and the two privately held Salt and Sunrise Communications AG as these companies have a license to operate 2G. Swisscom will cease 2G services due to their "public service requirements" only by 1 January 2021.|
|Taiwan||Chunghwa Telecom||30 June 2017|||
|Thailand||AIS||31 October 2019||Thailand's National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) has approved 31 October 2019 as the date for shutdown of Thailand's 2G mobile network. According to the NBTC, the shutdown will increase efficiency for network operators and open the door for 5G wireless broadband service by 2020. Operators are expected to migrate their 2G users to 3G and 4G services. Provincial governments will assist in informing 2G users of the move. The NBTC will cease their use of 2G standards and inform handset retailers and importers of the network's impending closure.|
|United States||AT&T||2017||AT&T's 2G GSM service was shut down in January 2017. This shutdown had a notable impact on the electronic security industry, where many 2G GSM radios were in use for alarm signal communication to central station dispatch centers. 2G GSM radios were required to be replaced by newer generation radios to avoid service outages.|
|T-Mobile||2020 (TBC)||T-Mobile US has postponed shutdown of their 2G network until 2020.|
|Verizon||31 December 2020||Verizon plans to shut down their 2G and 3G CDMA-based network by 31 December 2020.|
|Canada||SaskTel||7 July 2017||SaskTel (owned by the Government of Saskatchewan) announced it was shutting down its province-wide 2G CDMA network on 11 January 2017, effective 7 July 2017.|
|Bell||30 April 2019||Bell Canada shut down their 2G network in June of 2018, with Telus and Rogers Wireless announcing they will no longer support 2G devices shortly after. Shutoff of CDMA transmitters began in remote areas in 2017. Bell completed the shutdown of their network on 30 April 2019.|
|Telus||31 May 2017||Telus completed the shutdown of their network on 31 May 2017 (originally planned for 31 January 2017).|
|Rogers Wireless||31 December 2021||Rogers initially announced they would shut down their 2G network in 2018, but later pushed the date back to 31 December 2020, thus remaining the last nationwide 2G carrier. In July of 2020, they again postponed their 2G shutdown for another year.|
|China||China Unicom||31 December 2021 (TBC)||As of now, China Unicom has shut down 2G services in most regions, and the remaining parts will gradually be shut down, becoming the first communications operator in China to shut down 2G services.|
- Cliff effect
- List of mobile phone generations
- Mobile radio telephone, also known as 0G
- Wireless device radiation and health
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1st Generation (1G)
|Mobile Telephony Generations||Succeeded by|
3rd Generation (3G)