The Toyota Corolla (Japanese: トヨタ・カローラ, Hepburn: Toyota Karōra) is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured and marketed globally by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 1974 and has been one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle.[1] Toyota reached the milestone of 50 million Corollas sold over twelve generations in 2021.[2] The series has undergone several major redesigns.

The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin for "small crown".[3] The Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota Corolla Store locations, and manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter until 2000. From 2006 to 2018 in Japan and much of the world, and from 2018 to 2020 in Taiwan, the hatchback companion had been called the Toyota Auris.

Early models were mostly rear-wheel drive, while later models have been front-wheel drive. Four-wheel drive versions have also been produced. The Corolla's traditional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year as the Corolla in Japan and the later Honda Civic and Mitsubishi Lancer. The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes.

Production locations

Countries and territories where the Toyota Corolla has been produced. Red indicates Japan, blue indicates countries where the Corolla is currently produced, and green indicates countries where the Corolla was formerly produced.

Corollas are manufactured in Japan at the original Takaoka plant built in 1966. Various production facilities have been built in Brazil, (Indaiatuba, São Paulo), Canada (Cambridge, Ontario), China (Tianjin), Pakistan (Karachi), South Africa (Durban), Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey, and United Kingdom (Derbyshire). Production or assembly has previously been carried out in Australia (Victoria), India (Bangalore), Indonesia (Jakarta), Malaysia, New Zealand (Thames), the Philippines (Santa Rosa, Laguna), and Venezuela.

Production in the United States (at NUMMI in Fremont, California) ended in March 2010.[4] Production resumed the following year after the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi plant was opened in November 2011 in Blue Springs, Mississippi.[5]

First generation (E10; 1966)

First-generation Toyota Corolla, front
First-generation Toyota Corolla, rear

The first Corolla generation was introduced in November 1966 with the new 1100 cc K pushrod engine. The Corolla Sprinter was introduced as the fastback version in 1968, and exclusive to a Toyota Japan dealership retail outlet called Toyota Auto Store.

Second generation (E20; 1970)

Second-generation Toyota Corolla, front
Second-generation Toyota Corolla, rear

In May 1970, the E20 was restyled with a more rounded body. The now mutually exclusive Corolla and Sprinter names were used to differentiate between two slightly different treatments of sheet metal and trim. The Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno names were introduced as the enhanced performance version of the Corolla and Sprinter respectively when a double overhead camshaft version of the 2T engine was introduced in March 1972 (TE27).

In September 1970, the 1400 cc T and 1600 cc 2T OHV engines were added to the range.[6]

In Australia, only the 1.2 L engine (3K) powered 2-door KE20 was available as a sedan and wagon / panelvan. The brakes were single system with no booster, solid discs on the front and rear drums. Front sway bar but no rear sway bar. Parts are not compatible with later models.

In New Zealand, the 4-door KE20 was available.

Most models stopped production in July 1974 but the KE26 wagon and van were still marketed in Japan alongside the new 30-series, until production finally ended in May 1978.

Third generation (E30, E40, E50, E60; 1974)

Third-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Third-generation Toyota Corolla liftback

April 1974 brought rounder, bigger and heavier Corollas and Sprinters. The range was rounded out with the addition of a two-door liftback. The Corollas were given E30 codes while the Sprinters were given E40 codes. A face-lift in March 1976 saw most Corolla E30 models replaced by equivalent E50 models and most Sprinter E40 models were replaced by equivalent E60 models. The E30 Corolla was fitted with retracting front seat belts.

In Australia, KE3x was available as 4 door sedan, 2 door sedan, 2 door panel van (KE36) and 4 door wagon (KE38). All had 3K engines and K40 manual gearbox or 3 speed Auto. Sprinters were not available. Later KE5x models were available as 4 door sedan or 2 door coupe (A true pillar-less design) with 4K engine. The KE55 was 50 kg heavier due to the addition of side impact protection in the doors, but due to a change in the body metal and seam sealing they are prone to rust. Later KE55 also used plastic ended bumper bars as opposed to the all chrome bumpers of the previous models, but included a rear sway bar for the first time.

Fourth generation (E70; 1979)

Fourth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Fourth-generation Toyota Corolla liftback

A major restyle in March 1979[7] brought a square edged design. The Corollas had a simpler treatment of the grill, headlights and taillights while the Sprinter used a slightly more complex, sculptured treatment. The new A series engines were added to the range as a running change. This was the last model to use the K "hicam" and T series engines. Fuel injection was introduced as an extra cost option on Japanese market vehicles.

The wagon and van continued to be made until June 1987 after the rest of the range was replaced by the E80 generation.

Fifth generation (E80; 1983)

Fifth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Fifth-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback

A sloping front bonnet and a contemporary sharp-edged, no-frills style was brought in during May 1983. The new 1839 cc 1C diesel engine was added to the range with the E80 Series. From 1985, re-badged E80 Sprinters were sold in the U.S. as the fifth-generation Chevrolet Nova. Fuel injection was introduced as an extra cost option internationally.

Most models now used the front wheel drive layout except the AE85 and AE86, which were to be the last Corollas offered in the rear wheel drive or FR layout. The AE85 and AE86 chassis codes were also used for the Sprinter (including the Sprinter Trueno). The Sprinter was nearly identical to the Corolla, differing only by minor body styling changes such as pop-up headlights.

This generation was made until 1990 in Venezuela.[8]

Sixth generation (E90; 1987)

Sixth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Sixth-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback

A somewhat more rounded and aerodynamic style was used for the E90 introduced in May 1987. Overall this generation has a more refined feel than older Corollas and other older subcompacts. Most models were now front wheel drive, along with a few AWD All-Trac models. Many engines were used on a wide array of trim levels and models, ranging from the 1.3-liter 2E to the 123 kilowatts (165 hp) supercharged 4A-GZE. In the US, the E90 Sprinter was built and sold as both the Toyota Sprinter and the Geo Prizm. In Australia, the E90 Corolla was built and sold as both the Toyota Corolla and the Holden Nova.

In South Africa, this generation continued to be built until August 2006.[9]

Seventh generation (E100; 1991)

Seventh-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Seventh-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback

In June 1991, Corollas received a redesign to be larger, heavier, and have the completely rounded, aerodynamic shape of the 1990s. In the United States, the somewhat larger Corolla was now in the compact class, rather than subcompact, and the coupé was still available in some markets, known as the AE101 Corolla Levin. Carburetors were mostly retired with this generation.

Eighth generation (E110; 1995)

Eighth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan (Japan, Asia and South America)
Eighth-generation Toyota Corolla liftback (Europe and Australasia)

Production of the E110 Corolla started in May 1995. The design of the car was slightly altered throughout but retained a look similar to that of the E100. In 1998, for the first time, some non-Japanese Corollas received the new 1ZZ-FE engine.[citation needed] The 1ZZ-FE engine had an aluminum engine block and aluminum cylinder heads, which made models powered by this motor lighter than versions powered by A series engines which had cast iron blocks with aluminium heads. The model range began to change as Toyota decided styling differences would improve sales in different markets.

This generation was delayed in North America until mid-1997 (US 1998 model year), where it had unique front and rear styling.[citation needed] Europe and Australasia received versions of their own as well. In Pakistan, this model was halted in November 1998, while production was closed in March 2002.

Ninth generation (E120, E130; 2000)

Ninth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan
Ninth-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback

In August 2000, the E120 ninth-generation Corolla was introduced in Japan, with edgier styling and more technology to bring the nameplate into the 21st century. This version was sold in Japan, Australasia, Europe and the Middle East.

In mid-2001, the E120 Corolla Altis was released. It had a refreshed look and was slightly longer and wider than the E120 for other markets, but with similar body panels and interior. The Altis was sold in Southeast Asia, India, and Taiwan. India received a de-tuned version of the 1ZZ-FE and was comparatively slower than its rivals.

The North American release was delayed until March 2002 (for the 2003 model year). The E130 was sold in North America from 2003 to 2008. It had similar look to the Corolla Altis sold in Southeast Asia. The E120 continued in parallel in separate markets to the E130.

The station wagon model is called the Corolla Fielder in Japan. Production in Japan ended in January 2007 (for Corolla Runx and Allex),[10] but production in North America continued until October 2007.[citation needed]

Production continued in China as the Corolla EX until February 2017.

Tenth generation (E140, E150; 2006)

Japan (E140 narrow)

Tenth-generation Toyota Corolla (Japan), front
Tenth-generation Toyota Corolla (Japan), rear

The tenth generation of the E140 Corolla was introduced in October 2006. Japanese markets called the sedan Corolla Axio. The station wagon retained the Corolla Fielder name.

International (E140/E150 wide)

Tenth-generation Toyota Corolla (International), front
Tenth-generation Toyota Corolla (International), rear

For international markets, a wider version of the E140 was sold with different styling, with the Southeast Asian, Pakistani, Indian and Taiwanese markets retaining the Corolla Altis branding. Production continued from June 2014 until 2020 in South Africa as the entry-level Corolla Quest.

In Australasia, the related first-generation Toyota Auris was also sold as the Corolla hatchback alongside the sedan body shape of the International E140 Corolla.

Eleventh generation (E160, E170, E180; 2012)

Japan (E160; 2012)

Eleventh-generation Toyota Corolla (Japan), front
Eleventh-generation Toyota Corolla (Japan), rear

The eleventh generation of the Corolla went on sale in Japan in May 2012.[11] The sedan is named the Corolla Axio while the wagon is called the Corolla Fielder. In Japan, both are made by a Toyota subsidiary, Central Motors, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.[12] The redesigned model has slightly smaller exterior dimensions and is easier to drive in narrow alleys and parking lots for the targeted elderly drivers.[13]

The new Corolla Axio is available with either a 1.3-liter 1NR-FE or 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE four-cylinder engines; front- or all-wheel drive. Both 5-speed manual and CVT transmissions are offered. The 1.3-liter engine and all-wheel-drive variants are available only with the CVT transmission.[14] The Corolla Fielder is available with 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE or 1.8-liter 2ZR-FAE four cylinder engines mated with a CVT transmission. The 1.5-liter is available with front- and all-wheel drive, the 1.8-liter is offered only in front-wheel drive.[15] Since 2015 there's a new engine 2NR-FKE, with its VVT-ie technology.

Toyota released hybrid versions of the Corolla Axio sedan and Corolla Fielder station wagon for the Japanese market in August 2013. Both cars are equipped with a 1.5-liter hybrid system similar to the one used in the Toyota Prius c, with a fuel efficiency of 3.03 L/100 km (93.2 mpg‑imp; 77.6 mpg‑US) under the JC08 test cycle. Toyota's monthly sales target for Japan is 1,000 units of the Corolla Axio hybrid and 1,500 units of the Corolla Fielder hybrid.[16]

The E160 was also sold in Hong Kong, Macau, and New Zealand.

International (E170/E180; 2013)

Eleventh-generation Toyota Corolla (International)
Eleventh-generation Toyota Corolla (North America)

International markets continued on with the E140/E150 until at least 2013 when the E170/E180 model arrived. The E170/E180 is larger and substantially different from the Japanese E160, with a unique body and interior. Two basic front and rear styling treatments are fitted to the E170: a North American version that debuted first and a more conservative design for other markets that debuted later in 2013. The Corolla E180 went on sale in Europe and South Africa in February 2014.

In Australasia, the European market second-generation Toyota Auris was also sold badged as the Corolla hatchback, alongside the international E170 Corolla.

In 2017, Toyota released a hatchback version in the US called the Corolla iM, a rebadged second-generation facelifted Auris.

Twelfth generation (E210; 2018)

The twelfth generation of the Corolla is available in three body styles:

Hatchback

Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback, front
Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla hatchback, rear

The twelfth generation Corolla in hatchback body style was unveiled as a pre-production model in March 2018 at the Geneva Motor Show as the Auris.[17] The production version of the Corolla Hatchback for the North American market was unveiled on 28 March 2018 at the New York International Auto Show, with the official details and photos revealed on 22 March 2018. The Corolla Hatchback was launched in Japan on 27 June 2018 as the Corolla Sport. The Corolla Hatchback went on sale in the United States in mid-July 2018, and was later launched in Australia on 7 August 2018. Production of the European market Corolla Hatchback began on 14 January 2019, and sales began in the UK in February 2019 and across Europe in March 2019.[18]

Station wagon

Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla station wagon, front
Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla station wagon, rear

The station wagon variation of the twelfth generation Corolla, called the Corolla Touring Sports, was unveiled at the 2018 Paris Motor Show.[19][20] The official images of the Corolla Touring Sports were revealed on 4 September 2018.

The Corolla Touring Sports is also sold by Suzuki as the Swace in Europe.[21]

Sedan

Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan, front
Twelfth-generation Toyota Corolla sedan, rear

The sedan variation of the Corolla was unveiled simultaneously between 15 and 16 November 2018 in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, United States, and in China at the 2018 Guangzhou International Motor Show. The model is sold in two versions: Prestige (sold in China, Europe and other countries) and Sporty (sold in North America, Japan, Australia and other countries), and sold in China as the Levin. The Prestige model uses a different front fascia, which is more similar to the XV70 Camry. This model is sold as the Corolla Altis in Taiwan and Southeast Asia.[22][23] The Sporty model uses a similar front fascia to the hatchback and wagon versions.[24][25][26][27][28] A long-wheelbase version of the Prestige model with a slightly altered front fascia is sold as the Allion in China, while the long-wheelbase Sporty version is called the Levin GT.[29]

Sales

Year Japan[30] U.S. Canada Mexico Australia Europe Thailand Philippines Pakistan[31] India[32] China Argentina Colombia
Corolla EX[33] Corolla[34] Levin[35][36]
1973 116,905[37]
1974 103,394[37]
1975 151,177[37]
1976 187,321[37]
1977 259,344[37]
1978 212,757[37]
1979 257,096[38]
1980 257,315[38]
...
1983 178,572[39]
1984
1985 168,378[40]
1986 159,458[40]
1987 164,300[40]
1988 216,677[40] 23,586[41]
1989 199,975[40] 22,130[42]
1990 300,008 228,211[40] 29,981[43]
1991 275,019 199,083[40] 26,227[44]
1992 260,777 196,118[40] 23,825[45]
1993 237,537 193,749[40] 23,777[46]
1994 228,660 210,926[40] 21,915[47]
1995 235,626 213,640[40] 23,372[48]
1996 223,244 209,048[40] 23,212[49]
1997 238,098 218,461[50] 22,319[51]
1998 196,498 250,501[52] 25,079[53]
1999 160,677 249,128[52] 28,387[54] 8,268
2000 162,870 230,156[55] 30,576[56] 8,778
2001 236,507 245,023 30,813 8,116
2002 226,222 254,360[57] 34,948 6,151
2003 198,904 325,477 36,128 12,867 8,175
2004 173,301 333,161[58] 39,053 20,321 10,195 45,476
2005 149,810 341,290 46,415 23,002 8,974 67,392
2006 143,176 387,388[59] 46,256 30,527 7,168 78,973
2007 147,069 371,390 10,284[60] 47,792[61] 85,407[62] 35,762 6,463 63,999 65,844
2008 144,051 351,007[63] 57,736[64] 9,370 47,901 119,120[65] 33,640 8,102 52,247 165,271
2009 90,178 296,874[66] 53,933[67] 7,580 39,013[68] 26,760 8,604 57,109 157,457
2010 111,265 266,082[69] 38,680[67] 9,085 41,632[70] 51,189[71] 43,510 10,041 82,743 172,053
2011 70,758 240,259[72] 36,663[73] 10,306 36,087[74] 69,889[75] 41,111 9,283 120,962 170,467
2012 80,459 290,947[76] 40,906[77] 12,767 38,799[78] 63,481[79] 46,207 6,912 124,531 151,887
2013 101,664 302,180[80] 44,449[81] 10,956[82] 43,498[83] 67,987[84] 32,608 4,106 147,921 146,480
2014 114,331 339,498[85] 48,881[86] 13,553[87] 43,735[88] 36,595[90] 29,087 6,748 85,835 171,487 49,112
2015 109,027 363,332[91] 47,199[92] 13,215[93] 42,073[94] 69,194[95] 20,966[96] 51,398 7,574 46,340 254,301 125,699 15,829[97]
2016 84,770 378,210[98] 45,626[99] 13,228[100] 40,330[101] 67,876[102] 18,052[103] 57,452 4,860 17,091 307,360 159,071 15,786[104]
2017 77,466 329,196[105] 50,332[106] 10,135[107] 37,353[108] 60,936[109] 19,179[110] 52,676 4,242 2,829 336,763 172,626 17,230[111]
2018 89,910 303,732[105] 48,796[106] 6,351[112] 35,230[113] 55,686[114] 21,914[citation needed] 1,801[115] 51,412 3,286 374,400 192,697 15,582[116]
2019 104,406 304,850[117] 47,596 11,594[118] 30,468[119] 133,597 1,261[120] 56,720 1,422 357,798 213,905 9,045[121] 1,592[122]
2020 118,276[123] 237,178[124] 37,156[125] 8,127[126] 25,882[127] 137,209[128] 1,121[129] 22,140 350,310 222,361 4,336[130] 2,455[131]

Alternative versions

In Japan, the Corolla has always been exclusive to the Japanese retail sales chain called Toyota Corolla Store, which was previously established in 1961, known as Toyota Publica Store, selling the Publica. A badge engineered version called the Sprinter was introduced around the same time as the Corolla in Japan, and sold through a different Toyota Japan dealership sales channel known since 1966 as Toyota Auto Store.

There have been several models over the years, including the Corolla Ceres (and similar Sprinter Marino) hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupés and hatchbacks, and the Corolla FX hatchback, which became the Corolla RunX, while the Sprinter became the Allex, with the introduction of the E120 series Corolla. The RunX and Allex was replaced by the Auris in 2006 (known only as Corolla in markets outside Japan, Europe and South Africa). A luxury version of the Auris installed with V6 engines was briefly sold at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations as the Blade, which was sold until 2012.

A compact MPV named the Corolla Verso has also been released in European markets. Its Japanese counterpart is the Corolla Spacio, which has been discontinued as of the tenth generation. The Corolla Rumion is also sold in the US market as the Scion xB.

The Corolla Matrix, better known just as the Matrix, shares the E120 and E140 platforms, and is considered the hatchback/sport wagon counterpart of the North American Corolla sedan, as the European/Australasian Corolla hatchback is not sold there. Toyota frequently combines the sales figures of the Corolla sedan and Matrix. The Pontiac Vibe, which is the General Motors badged version of the Matrix, shares the Corolla platform. The Vibe was exported from Fremont, California, to the Japanese market where it was sold as the Toyota Voltz.[132]

The Corolla Cross is the crossover SUV-counterpart of the E210 series Corolla.[133]

Over many years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, sold by General Motors, including the Holden Nova in Australia during the early 1990s, and the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Chevrolet Prizm, and Geo Prizm (in the United States as part of the GM S platform). The Corolla liftback (TE72) of Toyota Australia was badged as simply the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models.

The Daihatsu Charmant was produced from the E30 to the E70 series.

The Tercel was a front wheel drive car, first introduced in 1980 at Japanese Toyota dealerships called Toyota Corolla Store, and was called the Corolla Tercel then, and later given its own name in 1984. The Tercel platform was also used for the Corolla II hatchback in Japan.

See also

References

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External links