Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain (officially Ford Motor Company Limited)[note 1] is a British wholly owned subsidiary of Blue Oval Holdings, itself a subsidiary of Ford International Capital LLC, which is a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. Its business started in 1909 and has its registered office in Brentwood, Essex. It adopted the name of Ford of Britain in 1960.
Ford of Britain operates three major manufacturing sites in the UK, in Bridgend (petrol engine production), Dagenham (diesel engine production) and Halewood (transmissions). It also operates a large research and development facility in Dunton, Essex, which employs over 3,000 engineers.
Ford has been the UK's biggest-selling car and commercial vehicle brand for 34 and 45 consecutive years respectively.
The first Ford cars, three Model As, were imported into the UK in 1903 and the first dealership in Southampton opened in 1910. In 1909 the Ford Motor Company (England) Limited was established under the chairmanship of Percival Perry opening an office at 55 Shaftesbury Avenue, London, on 8 March 1911.
An assembly plant in an old Tram factory in Trafford Park, Manchester, was opened in 1911 employing 60 people to make the Model T and the company was reregistered as Henry Ford & Son, Ltd. This was the first Ford factory outside North America. At first the cars were assembled from imported chassis and mechanical parts with bodies sourced locally. Six thousand cars were produced in 1913 and the Model T became the country's biggest selling car with 30% of the market. In 1914 Britain's first moving assembly line for car production started with 21 cars an hour being built. After the First World War, the Trafford Park plant was extended, and in 1919, 41% of British registered cars were Fords.
In 1917, a plant opened in Cork, Ireland, initially for tractor manufacture, but from 1921 cars were built as well. This factory was the first to be purpose built by Ford in Europe. The company of Henry Ford and Son Limited–Fordson– was officially incorporated on 17 April 1917, starting its life on the site of an old Cork racecourse. Its first registered office was at 36 South Mall, Cork.
Although the Manchester plant was served by the Manchester Ship Canal, Ford decided that access to a deep water port was required and in 1923 a new site was chosen by the River Thames at Dagenham, east of London.
Formation of Ford Motor Company Limited
In December 1928 Ford (since 1924 entirely owned by Henry Ford, his wife and their son Edsel) announced in London that it had formed a new company, Ford Motor Company Limited, with three US directors (Henry Ford, Edsel Ford, Charles E. Sorensen) and four British directors (Sir Percy Perry: Roland Kitson, J T Davies and Lord Illingworth) with a capital of £7 million. This company acquired all Ford's European and Middle Eastern business[note 2] in exchange for 60% of its capital. The balance of 40% of the capital of the new Ford Motor Company Limited, 2.8 million shares of £1 each, was now available for public subscription. These shares were heavily over-subscribed. There was considerable investing interest from America as US investors had had no previous opportunity of investing in a Henry Ford business.
The new chairman, Sir Percival Perry, had been, and now was again, central to the development of Ford in Europe. Perry's association with Henry Ford dated from 1905 when Perry became a shareholder of Ford's first British agency but the very first link between them was earlier, in 1903. The two men first met in 1906 in Detroit. From Britain Perry envisioned Ford making vehicles outside USA and selling them across the British Empire and Europe. He raced the company's cars, organised a chain of exclusive dealers and superintended the Trafford Park assembly plant. In 1919 Henry Ford chose to run operations from Detroit, Perry was determined to run all European business himself. Perry resigned in May 1919.
His American managers having failed him Henry Ford offered Perry the chairmanship of this new Ford Motor Company Limited in 1928.
At the first meeting of shareholders in London on 6 March 1929 Perry reported "during the first three months of our first year we and our associated companies in Europe have delivered upwards of 50,000 Model 'A' vehicles into the hands of satisfied owners. The improved Fordson tractor is not yet in production but it is hoped to deliver the first tractors completely manufactured at our Cork works within the next month."
Europe's largest car plant
Construction started at Dagenham in 1929, and in October 1931, Britain's and Europe's largest car plant opened producing the Ford Model AA truck and Model A car. This was at the height of the Great Depression and the Model A was too expensive to tax and run in Britain and very few were sold, only five in the first three months. A smaller car was urgently needed and this came in 1932 with the 933 cc Model Y, a car much more suited to the market and becoming in 1935 Britain's first £100 car (accounting for inflation £6993, ). This was Ford's first car specifically designed for sale outside North America. Between 1932 and 1937 over 157,000 were made at Dagenham and Cork and at its peak it captured 41% of its market sector.
In 1938, Ford's Cork factory hit an important milestone, producing its 25,000th vehicle since becoming an assembly plant in 1932. In all, 73,000 cars, trucks and tractors had been built at Cork up to that time.
The original 1928 plan was for Canada, having the benefit of Imperial Preference tariffs, to manufacture components for Ford assembly plants in the British Empire. Dagenham was to do, and did, the same for assembly plants in Europe but in 1932, mired in the financial depression, both France and Germany announced their intention to impose heavy new tariffs on imported components. In France urgent arrangements were made with Mathis for their plant to be leased by a joint-venture to be known as Matford and devoted to the full manufacture of Ford or Matford products.
More capital was required. There were consequential exchanges in shareholdings between Dagenham and Dearborn and other shareholders.
As an indication of the British and Irish company's sense of independence, in 1938 Henry Ford Harry Ferguson came to 'a handshake agreement' whereby Ford would manufacture tractors designed by Ferguson using the "Ferguson System". Production commenced in USA in June 1939 and the product was outstandingly successful but Henry Ford was unable to persuade Ford in Britain to manufacture the Ford-Ferguson though they did sell the US-made tractors. In 1945 Ferguson arranged British production with Standard Motor Company. Harry Ferguson sued US Ford for illegal use of his patents asking for compensation of £90 million, settled out of court in 1952. Charles E. Sorensen's autobiography—he was a director of this company—described Ferguson so unfavourably his UK publishers were obliged to scrap all copies and pay costs and Sorensen made a public apology.
World War II
After World War II, civilian production resumed and Dagenham made 115,000 vehicles in 1946 and factories in Walthamstow in Essex (later London) and Langley in Buckinghamshire (later Berkshire) were acquired. The millionth vehicle made since the Dagenham factory started production in October 1931 rolled from the assembly line on 27 August 1946, a cream Ford 10 saloon.
1950 Dearborn buys back Ford Europe
Henry Ford resigned in 1945 in favour of grandson Henry Ford II and died in April 1947. Perry, founder-chairman of Ford Motor Company Limited and each of the Ford Group's European subsidiaries retired in 1948. In 1950 Ford's controlling interests in the European businesses were sold to Ford Dearborn. In 1953, following the death of its Detroit founder, Briggs Motor Bodies, whose parent provided bodies to Ford America, was purchased, giving the company more control of its supplies and so acquiring plants at Doncaster, Southampton, Croydon and Romford. By 1953, Ford of Britain directly employed 40,000 people.
Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company
Until 1960 Ford Motor Company Limited remained a publicly quoted company, its shares freely listed on British exchanges, with more than 10,000 stockholders. The Ford Motor Company of Dearborn Michigan then held just 54% of its shares. That year, after eighteen months of rumour and denial, the US company offered to buy out the other shareholders. The offer was accepted and Ford completed payment for the other 46% of Ford Motor Company Limited at the end of January 1961. Ford of Britain, properly Ford Motor Company Limited, then became a wholly owned Ford subsidiary.
In 1962, Ford opened a factory at Halewood near Liverpool to make the Anglia. This ceased to be a Ford plant (although remained under Ford ownership) when the last Escort came off the production line in 2000 and was then converted to make the Jaguar X-Type in 2001, and latterly the Land Rover Freelander. Halewood was included in the sale of Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors in 2008, although Ford retained ownership of its transmission works.
The Cork factory celebrated the 50-year anniversary in 1967. As part of that landmark event, a £2 million investment program was announced to rebuild, reequip and modernise the assembly plant. As a result, the plant was to become the largest and most modern factory of its kind in Ireland. In the same year Ford of Europe was formed with Henry Ford and Son Limited. It was as an important partnership from the start. Another £2 million was spent on assembly facilities and operations to ensure that Cork production equalled the highest European standards of quality. By 1977, the total area of the plant was well over 450,000 square feet.
The rationalisation plan put in place meant that in 1972, the Cork plant became a two-car plant that was producing the two best selling cars in Ireland: the Escort and Cortina. Between them, these two models were accounting for 75% of Ford sales in Ireland at the time. The Irish company was also exporting around 4,000 cars (mostly Escorts) to Britain. The Cork plant closed in 1984.
Ford sewing machinists strike of 1968
The Ford sewing machinists strike of 1968 was a landmark labour-relations dispute in the United Kingdom. The strike began on 7 June 1968, when women sewing machinists at Dagenham plant walked out and were later followed by the machinists at Halewood Body & Assembly plant. The women were responsible for car seat covers and their strike eventually led to a complete halt to all car production. The Dagenham sewing machinists walked out when, as part of a regrading exercise, they were informed that their jobs were graded in Category B (less skilled production jobs), instead of Category C (more skilled production jobs), and that they would be paid 15% less than the full B rate received by men.
The strike ended three weeks after it began following the intervention of Barbara Castle, the Secretary of State for Employment and Productivity. The deal brokered immediately increased their rate of pay to 8% below that of men, rising to the full category B rate the following year.
Ford produced a range of commercial vehicles starting with the Model TT in 1917. From 1933 to 1939 these were badged Fordson, this changed to Fordson Thames until 1957 after which it became plain Thames until 1965. From 1965 they reverted to Ford. After the closure of the Trafford Park factory most of the larger commercials were built at Langley. The truck operation was sold to the Iveco group of Italy in 1986 and became Iveco Ford (48% owned by Ford). The Langley plant closed in 1997.
2013: End of production
At midday on Wednesday, 26 July 2013 Ford ended more than 100 years of vehicle manufacturing in the UK, with end of assembling Transit vans, by moving production of the next generation Transit to the Ford Otosan plant in Turkey. Ford Southampton plant built 28,000 vans, barely a third of its 2007 production.
- Percival Perry 1928–1948 also managing director 1928–1948
- Roland Kitson 1948–1956
- Patrick Hennessy 1956–1968 also managing director 1948–1968
Ford of Europe
- Ford Model T (1913–1927)
- Ford Model A (1928–1931)
- Ford Model B (1932–1935)
- Ford Model Y (1932–1937)
- Ford 7Y (1937–1939)
- Ford V8 (1932–1939)
- Ford Model C Ten (1935–1937)
- Ford 7W (1937–1938)
- Ford Anglia (1939–1967)
- Ford Prefect (1939–1961)
- Ford V8 Pilot (1947–1951)
- Ford Consul (1950–1962)
- Ford Zephyr (1951–1972)
- Ford Zodiac (1954–1972)
- Ford Popular (1953–1962)
- Ford Escort/Squire (1955–1961)
- Ford Consul Classic (1961–1963)
- Ford Consul Capri (1961–1964)
- Ford Cortina (1962–1982)
- Ford Corsair (1963–1970)
- Ford Escort (1968–2000)
- Ford Capri (1969–1986)
- Ford Granada (1972–1994)
- Ford Fiesta (1976–present)
- Ford Focus (1998–present)
- Ford Sierra (1982–1993)
- Ford Mondeo (1993–present)
- Ford Puma (1997–present)
Note – cwt is the abbreviation of hundredweight (112 pounds or 1/20 ton)
- Fordson tractor (1917–1964)
- Ford Model TT 1 ton (1917–1927)
- Ford Model AA 30cwt (1928–1932)
- Ford Model BB (1932–)
- Ford Model Y 5 cwt (1932–1937)
- Thames/Fordson E83W 10cwt van and pick-up (1938–1957)
- Fordson E04C 5 cwt (1945–1948)
- Fordson E494C 5 cwt (1948–1954)
- Thames/Fordson 300E 5 cwt (1954)
- Thames 400e 10,12,15 cwt
- Thames 300E 5 & 7 cwt (1954–1961)
- Thames 307E 5 & 7 cwt (1961–1967)
- Thames Trader 30 cwt, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7-ton (1957–1962)
- Thames Trader MkII (1962–1965)
- Ford H (1962–)
- Ford K (Trader rename) (1965–)
- Ford Transit (1965-present)
- Ford A-Series (1973-1983)
- Ford D-series
- Ford D800
- Ford D1000 (1967–)
- Ford R-Series
- Ford Transcontinental (1975–1983)
- Ford Cargo (1981–1993)
- The Ford 'companies' or corporate entities referred to in this article are:
- Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan, USA, incorporated 16 June 1903
- Ford Motor Company Limited, incorporated 7 December 1928. Current (May 2010) registered office at Eagle Way, Brentwood, Essex, CM13 3BW, manufacturer and seller of motor vehicles and parts
- Ford Motor Company (England) Limited, incorporated in 1909, purchased by Ford Motor Company Limited December 1928
- Henry Ford and Son, Dearborn, Michigan, November 1915, incorporated 8 October 1917
- Henry Ford and Son Limited, Cork incorporated 17 April 1917, purchased by Ford Motor Company Limited December 1928
- Société d'Investissements Ford, Luxembourg, was liquidated during 1939 and its assets transferred to:
- Ford Investment Company Limited, Guernsey, Channel Islands
- Ford Motor Company (England) Limited, Henry Ford and Son Limited, Cork.
And by holding their share capitals: Automobiles Ford S.A., Paris, Ford Motor Company A/S, Copenhagen, Ford Motor Company S.A.E., Barcelona, Ford Motor Company of Belgium S.A., Antwerp, Ford Motor Company d'Italia S.A., Trieste, N.V. Ford Motor Company of Holland, Rotterdam
- Ford Motor Company A.B., Stockholm, Ford Motor Company A.G., Berlin, Ford Motor Company of Finland O/Y, Helsingfors, Ford Motor Company Pen Island 2015.
- "Ford in Britain". Ford of Britain. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Ford Motor Company 2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 27 October 2017.[permanent dead link]
- Ford Display Advertising The Times, Saturday, 23 July 1960; pg. 5; Issue 54831; col A
- "Forty years of Ford at Dunton". BBC Essex. October 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Ford remains strong in Europe despite challenging market conditions in 2010". Ford Motor Company. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Hendy's century in cars". Portsmouth News. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2017
- "independent portal site about Ford in Europe". FordEurope.net. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- FORD MOTOR COMPANY LIMITED. (Incorporated under the Companies Acts, 1908 to 1917.) The Times, Tuesday, 11 December 1928; pg. 24; Issue 45073
- Richard Davenport-Hines, ‘Perry, Percival Lee Dewhurst, Baron Perry (1878–1956)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- Ford Motor Company. Large Deliveries Of Model "A" Cars. (Business and Finance) The Times Thursday, 7 March 1929; pg. 24; Issue 45145
- "The New Small Ford Car. Coming Exhibition at Albert Hall" The Times, Saturday, 30 January 1932; pg. 7; Issue 46044
- adjusted by using average earnings for 2012: £16,300.00 measuringworth.com
- "Claim Against Ford Company" The Times, Thursday, 6 October 1949; pg. 2; Issue 51505
- "Tractor Inventor's £90M. Claim. Allegations Against Ford Company" The Times, Tuesday, 27 March 1951; pg. 3; Issue 51959
- "Settlement in Suit Against Ford Company £3M. Award To Fergusons" The Times, Thursday, 10 April 1952; pg. 6; Issue 52283
- "Queen's Bench Division. Inventor's Libel Action Settled Publishers And Author Apologize" The Times, Friday, 18 July 1958; pg. 13; Issue 54206
- The Millionth British Ford. Mr. Wilmot on Dagenham Production The Times, Wednesday, 28 August 1946; pg. 7; Issue 50541
- Obituary: Lord Perry. The Ford Interests In Europe The Times, Tuesday, 19 June 1956; pg. 13; Issue 53561
- Ford's New Preference Shares The Times, Saturday, 10 December 1949; pg. 8; Issue 51561
- "Formal Ford Offer Sent To Shareholders. Modified Views About Future Prospects (Business and Finance) By Our City Editor". The Times Tuesday, 13 December 1960; pg. 17; Issue 54953
- "Dealing with the Inflow Of £120M. Ford Money (Business and Finance)" The Times Tuesday, 24 January 1961; pg. 15; Issue 54987
- Maurice A Smith, ed. (18 April 1968). "American Parentage". Autocar. 128 (nbr 3766): 64. Cite has empty unknown parameter:
- Ford Car Plant to Close 1984, RTÉ Archives
The Story of Ford – The fifth largest automaker in the world and manufacturer of some of the best-selling cars of all time
- Cork Fordson
- Ford UK official website
- Documents and clippings about Ford of Britain in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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