The rulers of Tuscany varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

House of Boniface

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Boso

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface

House of Hucpold

Nondynastic

House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.

Nondynastic

In 1197 Philip was elected King of Germany and the majority of the Tuscan nobility, cities and bishops formed the Tuscan League with Papal backing.

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1434–1569

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434–1494

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Cosimo di Medici (Bronzino).jpg Cosimo de' Medici 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464 6 October 1434 – 1 August 1464 Contessina de' Bardi
c. 1415
2 sons
First de facto Lord of Florence
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici.jpg Piero I the Gouty 19 September 1416 – 2 December 1469 1 August 1464 – 2 December 1469 Lucrezia Tornabuoni
3 June 1444
5 children
Son of Cosimo
Lorenzo de Medici.jpg Lorenzo I the Magnificent 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492 2 December 1469 – 8 April 1492 Clarice Orsini
4 June 1469
10 children
Son of Piero
Giuliano de' Medici by Sandro Botticelli.jpeg Giuliano I de' Medici 25 October 1453 – 26 April 1478 2 December 1469 – 26 April 1478 Fioretta Gorini
never married
1 son
Son of Piero and co-ruler with Lorenzo
501 Piero de Medici 02.JPG Piero II the Unfortunate 15 February 1472 – 28 December 1503 9 April 1492 – 9 November 1494 Alfonsina Orsini
February 1488
Rome
2 children
Son of Lorenzo, was deposed and exiled

Republic of Florence (1494-1512)

Portrait Name From To Note
Girolamo Savonarola.jpg Girolamo Savonarola 1494 1498 Inspired reform around Florence, was condemned a heretic and hanged and simultaneously burned at the stake in the middle of the piazza.
Piero Soderini (1450-1522), by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio.jpg Piero Soderini 1502 1512 was declared Standard Bearer for life, fled Florence after the Medici conquest.

Rulers of the House of Medici (1512-1532)

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Raffael 040 (crop).jpg Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521 31 August 1512 – 9 March 1513 Never married Son of Lorenzo, later became Pope Leo X
Raffaello, giuliano de' medici.jpg Giuliano II de' Medici 12 March 1479 – 17 March 1516 9 March 1513 – 17 March 1516 Filiberta of Savoy
22 February 1515
Paris
no issue
1 illegitimate son
Son of Lorenzo
Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici.jpg Lorenzo de' Medici 12 September 1492 – 4 May 1519 17 March 1516 – 4 May 1519 Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne
5 May 1518
Château d'Amboise, Amboise
1 daughter
1 illegitimate son
Son of Piero the Unfortunate
Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian) - Pope Clement VII - Google Art Project.jpg Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534 4 May 1519 – 19 November 1523 Never married Son of Giuliano de Medici, later became Pope Clement VII
Ippolito de' Medici.jpg Ippolito de' Medici 1511 – 10 August 1535 19 November 1523 – 16 May 1527 Never married Illegitimate son of Giuliano II de Medici
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 22 July 1510 – 6 January 1537 16 May 1527 – 1530 Margaret of Parma
13 June 1536
Florence
no issue
3 illegitimate children
Illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici

After the Sack of Rome, Florence overthrew the Medicis once more and became a republic until Pope Clement VII signed a peace treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who then invaded Florence and restored the Medicis.

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 22 July 1510 – 6 January 1537 5 July 1531 – 1 May 1532 Margaret of Parma
13 June 1536
Florence
no issue
3 illegitimate children
Illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici

Medici dukes of Florence, 1532–1569

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 22 July 1510 – 6 January 1537 1 May 1532 – 6 January 1537 Margaret of Parma
13 June 1536
Florence
no issue
3 illegitimate children
Illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici
Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici 12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574 6 January 1537 – 21 August 1569 (1) Eleanor of Toledo
29 June 1539
Florence
11 children
(2) Camilla Martelli
1570
1 daughter
Son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Medici grand dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici 12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574 21 August 1569 – 21 April 1574 (1) Eleanor of Toledo
29 June 1539
Florence
11 children
(2) Camilla Martelli
1570
1 daughter
Son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Portrait of Francesco I de' Medici (by Alessandro Allori).jpg Francesco I de' Medici 25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587 21 April 1574 – 17 October 1587 (1) Joanna of Austria
18 December 1565
Florence
8 children
(2) Bianca Cappello
10 June 1579
1 son
Son of Cosimo I
S Pulzone Fernando I de Medicis Uffizi 1590.jpg Ferdinando I de' Medici 30 July 1549 – 3 February 1609 19 October 1587 – 7 February 1609 Christina of Lorraine
1589
Florence
9 children
Son of Cosimo I
Justus Sustermans 010.jpg Cosimo II de' Medici 12 May 1590 – 28 February 1621 17 February 1609 – 28 February 1621 Maria Maddalena of Austria
1608
8 children
Son of Ferdinando I
Justus Sustermans - Portrait of F. Medici.jpg Ferdinando II de' Medici 14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670 28 February 1621 – 23 May 1670 Vittoria della Rovere
6 April 1637
4 children
Son of Cosimo II
Volterrano, Cosimo III de' Medici in grand ducal robes (Warsaw Royal Castle).jpg Cosimo III de' Medici 14 August 1642 – 31 October 1723 23 May 1670 – 31 October 1723 Marguerite Louise d'Orléans
17 April 1661
Louvre
3 children
Son of Ferdinando II
Giangastonecoronation.jpg Gian Gastone de' Medici 24 May 1671 – 9 July 1737 31 October 1723 – 9 July 1737 Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg
2 July 1697
Düsseldorf
no issue
Son of Cosimo III

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Martin van Meytens 006.jpg Francesco II Stefano 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765 12 July 1737 – 18 August 1765 Maria Theresa
12 February 1736
Vienna
16 children
Great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I, received Tuscany per the terms of the Treaty of Vienna
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Leopoldo I 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792 18 August 1765 – 22 July 1790 Maria Luisa of Spain
16 February 1764
Madrid
16 children
Second son of Francesco II Stefano
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 6 May 1769 – 18 June 1824 22 July 1790 – 3 August 1801 (1) Luisa of Naples and Sicily
19 September 1790
Vienna
6 children
(2) Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony
6 May 1821
Florence
no issue
Second son of Leopoldo I

Bourbon-Parma kings of Etruria, 1801–1807

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Luis de Etruria.jpg Ludovico I 5 July 1773 – 27 May 1803 21 March 1801 – 27 May 1803 Maria Luisa of Spain
25 August 1795
Madrid
2 children
Grandson of Francesco II Stefano
Charles II, Duke of Parma c 1850.JPG Ludovico II 22 December 1799 – 16 April 1883 27 May 1803 – 10 December 1807 Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
Lucca
2 children
Son of Ludovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 6 May 1769 – 18 June 1824 27 April 1814 – 18 June 1824 (1) Luisa of Naples and Sicily
19 September 1790
Vienna
6 children
(2) Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony
6 May 1821
Florence
no issue
Restored
Leopold II of Tuscany.jpg Leopoldo II 3 October 1797 – 29 January 1870 18 June 1824 – 21 July 1859 (1) Maria Anna of Saxony
28 October 1817
Dresden
4 children
(2) Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies
7 June 1833
Naples
10 children
Son of Ferdinando III
FerdinandTuscany.jpg Ferdinando IV 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908 21 July 1859 – 22 March 1860 (1) Anna of Saxony
24 November 1856
Dresden
2 daughters
(2) Alice of Parma
11 January 1868
Frohsdorf
10 children
Son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860–present

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
FerdinandTuscany.jpg Ferdinando IV 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908 22 March 1860 – 17 January 1908 (1) Anna of Saxony
24 November 1856
Dresden
2 daughters
(2) Alice of Parma
11 January 1868
Frohsdorf
10 children
Son of Leopoldo II
Joseph Ferdinand Salvator Austria 1872 1942 photo1895.jpg Giuseppe Ferdinando 24 May 1872 – 28 August 1942 17 January 1908 – 2 May 1921 (1) Rosa Kaltenbrunner
2 May 1921
Maria Plain
no issue
(2) Gertrude Tomanek von Beyerfels-Mondsee
27 January 1929
Vienna
2 children
Second son of Ferdinando IV
Erzherzog Peter Ferdinand.jpg Pietro Ferdinando 2 May 1874 – 8 November 1948 2 May 1921 – 8 November 1948 Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
8 November 1900
Cannes
4 children
Third son of Ferdinando IV
Erzherzog Gottfried.jpg Goffredo 14 March 1902 – 21 January 1984 8 November 1948 - 21 January 1984 Dorothea of Bavaria
2 August 1938
Sárvár
4 children
Son of Pietro Ferdinando
Greater coat of Arms of the Grand duchy of Tuscany.svg Leopoldo Francesco 25 October 1942 - 23 June 2021 21 January 1984 - 18 June 1993 Laetitia d'Arenberg
19 June 1965
St. Gilgen
2 sons
Son of Goffredo
Sigismondo dAsburgo-Lorena.jpg Sigismondo 21 April 1966 - Present 18 June 1993 - Present Elyssa Juliet Edmonstone
1999
3 children
Son of Leopoldo Francesco

See also