Electric motors have a long history going back to the early nineteenth century.
|Date, Name||Electric Motor Chronology||Selected Patents|
|1740s, Andrew Gordon and Benjamin Franklin||British (Gordon), American (Franklin); experimentation with electrostatic motors.|
|1820, Hans Christian Ørsted||Danish, physicist and chemist; first to note a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when an electric current from a battery was switched on and off, confirming a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.|
|1820, André-Marie Ampère||French, physicist; invented the solenoid.|
|1821 Michael Faraday||British, scientist; showed continuous 'electromagnetic rotation' resulted by suspending a magnetic wire in an electric field;|
|1822, Peter Barlow||British, physicist; invented Barlow's wheel, the first device ever powered by electromagnetism.|
|1824, François Arago||French, physicist; showed a rotating copper disk produced rotation in a magnetic needle suspended above it, which Faraday later attributed to induction phenomena.|
|1828, Ányos Jedlik||Hungarian, physicist and unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor; invented the first commutated rotary electromechanical machine with electromagnets. He invented the commutator. In 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical DC motors: the stator, rotor and commutator.|
|Before 1830, Johann Michael Ekling||Austrian, mechanic; constructed an electric motor according to the plans of Austrian physicist Andreas von Baumgartner.|
|1831 Michael Faraday||British, scientist; discovered and investigated induction law in terms of electric current generation in a varying magnetic field.|
|1831, Joseph Henry||American, physicist; Created a mechanical rocker, which he however describes as a philosophical toy.|
|1825-1833 William Sturgeon||British, scientist; 1825 - invented the electro-magnet; 1833 - built first commutated rotating electric machine that was demonstrated in London.|
|1832–33, Hippolyte Pixii||French, instrument maker, built the first AC generating apparatus out of a rotation; and, the following year, an oscillating DC generator.|
|1833, Joseph Saxton||American, inventor; demonstrated a magneto-electric machine before the British Association for the Advancement of Science.|
|1833, Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz||German; formulated the law of reversibility of generators and motors.|
|1834–1839, Moritz von Jacobi||German-Russian, engineer and physicist; built a 15 watt motor in 1834 submitted to the Academy of Sciences in Paris with details published in 1835; demonstrated first use of electric motor to propel a boat; first real useful rotary electrical motor.|
|1837, Thomas Davenport and Emily Davenport||American, blacksmith-inventor and inventor; obtained first US electric motor patent.||US 132|
|1837–1842, Robert Davidson||Scottish, inventor; developed electric motors for a lathe and a locomotive.|
|1838, Solomon Stimpson||American; built a 12-pole electric motor with segmental commutator.||US 910|
|1840, Truman Cook||American; built electric motor with a PM armature.||US 1735|
|1845, Paul-Gustav Froment||French, engineer and instrument maker; first of various motors; first motor translated linear "electromagnetic piston's" energy to wheel's rotary motion. See also Mouse mill motor.|
|1856, Werner Siemens||German, industrialist; invented generator with a double-T armature and slots windings.|
|1861–1864, James Clerk Maxwell||British, scientist; reduced electromagnetism knowledge in four key equations.|
|1871–1873, Zénobe Théophile Gramme||Belgian, engineer; developed the anchor ring motor which solved the double-T armature pulsating DC problem; at Vienna exhibition, demonstrated to great effect ability to transmit between generator and motor 1 km apart.|
|1879, Walter Baily||British; based on Arago's rotations, by manual switching on and off, developed the first primitive commutatorless induction motor.|
|1880, Marcel Deprez||French engineer; by the progressive shifting of a magnetic field through the mechanical commutator in regular order around a center, electric currents are being developed by induction in a rotating metal mass without sliding contacts or commutator.|
|1885, Galileo Ferraris||Italian, physicist and engineer; invented the first AC commutatorless induction motor using two-phase AC windings in space quadrature. Delivered a paper on it in April 1888.|
|1887, M. Borel||Constructed a two phase motor where the rotor is set in rotation by the combined rotating field produced with two sets of coils.|
|1887, Helios Co.||Based on Coerper's patent, Helios Co. constructed the first 3-phase motor with three slip-rings. The project was dropped in 1890 as they could get satisfactory results using a 2-phase current.|
|1887, Charles S. Bradley||Motor/generators with a Gramme ring, having multiple radial connectors, led off at corresponding symmetrical points to slip-rings. He thus obtained alternate currents differing in phase.||US390439A|
|1887–1891, Nikola Tesla||Serbian-American, engineer and inventor; having worked independently from Ferraris, presented a paper in May, 1888 to AIEE describing three patented two-phase four-stator-pole motor types: one with a four-pole rotor forming a non-self-starting reluctance motor, another with a wound rotor forming a self-starting induction motor, and the third a true synchronous motor with separately-excited DC supply to rotor winding. Westinghouse acquired exclusive rights to the Tesla patents as well as the Ferraris design and retain Tesla as a consultant for a short time to work on development of these motors.||US 0,381,968
|1886, Frank Julian Sprague||American, industrialist; development of new constant-speed DC motor, which allowed the Sprague company to issue the world's "first important industrial electric motor catalogue".|
|1889–90, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky||Polish-Russian, engineer and inventor; invented the first cage and wound rotor versions of the three-phase induction motor that are still widely in use today.|
|Date, Name||Electric Motor Chronology||Selected Patents|
|1905, Alfred Zehden||German, a feasible linear induction motor described in patent form for driving trains or lifts.||U.S. Patent 782,312|
|1935, Hermann Kemper||German, built a working linear induction motor|
|1945–1949, Eric Laithwaite||British, first full-size working model of linear induction motor|
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