Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can also be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross.
Four- (or more) wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA); and the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) governs two-wheeled competition. Likewise, the Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) governs air sports; including aeroplane racing.
In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on public roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom.
Motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations.
Open wheel racing
Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, and not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific 'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, and Formula Two. Many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the 'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former 'Formula' series include Formula 5000 and GP3.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), and currently organized by the privately owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power, weight, size, and design. The rules do allow for some variation, however.
Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing that uses only electric-powered cars. The series was conceived in 2012, and the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is also sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains. The series has gained significant traction in recent years.
A series originated on June 12, 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50–200 miles. Its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 20 teams and 40 different drivers. The current schedule includes 15 tracks over the course of 17 races per season. Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series in September 2019.
Enclosed wheel racing
Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American 'stock car'.
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies.
Stock car racing
Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are often credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area. An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while also maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but quickly gained interest from all over the country. As oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947, to combine flat track oval racing of production cars. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, and including part of A1A. The highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500, also nicknamed 'The Great American Race' which is held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing
Off-road racing is a group of vehicles that specialize in off-road racing and are modified street cars that can race on close purpose built off-road tracks and courses. Off-road racing is popular all over the world. Premier off-road events include the Dakar Rally and the Baja 1000 desert race. Series like the National Off-Road Racing Association (NORRA) which was founded in 1967, sanctions events utilizing off-road vehicles racing through the Baja Desert. The first event sanctioned by the organization was the 1967 Mexican 1000 rally that began in Tijuana and ended in La Paz.
Motor sports which involve competitors racing against each other include:
- Air racing
- Auto (car) racing
- Motor rallying
- Motorcycle racing
- Kart racing
- Banger racing
- Motorboat racing
- Drone racing
- Hovercraft racing
- Lawn mower racing
- Radio-controlled model racing
- Slot car racing
- Snowmobile racing
- Truck racing
Racing events are governed by Race Officials. In preparation for the race, a Race Committee is formed, senior officials such as Race Director, Clerk of the Course, Chief Steward are established. Race Officials are typically members of the country's motorsport governing organization and represent its rules and regulations.
Throughout the racing event, Race Officials are responsible for logistics, supporting services, safety, participant scrutineering, race judging, arbitration, and any other decision making.
After the race, the Race Officials are responsible in resolving any issues that may have arisen during the race. Parties can appeal its decisions to the country's motorsport governing organization.
- Glossary of motorsport terms
- List of motorsport championships
- Electric motorsport
- International Motorsports Hall of Fame
- Long Beach Motorsports Walk of Fame
- Motorsports Hall of Fame of America
- Gifford, p. 7.
- Gifford, p. 9.
- Gifford, p. 10.
- Gifford, p. 11.
- "motor racing (noun) definition and synonyms - Macmillan Dictionary". www.macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Jonathan Noble; Mark Hughes. "Discovering What Makes Formula One, Formula One". Formula One Racing For Dummies.
- Telegraph Sport (13 September 2014). "Formula E opens with spectacular crash involving Nick Heidfeld and Nicolas Prost as Lucas di Grassi claims win". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Formula E (31 July 2017). "Agag: This has been our take-off season". Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- Straver, Haiko Benthem, Patrick. "OpenWheelWorld.Net >> Indy Car historie". www.openwheelworld.net. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Schedule - Verizon IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, Pro Mazda & Cooper Tires USF2000". IndyCar.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Regulations". Federation Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "How Prohibition Gave Birth to NASCAR". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Billock, Jennifer. "How Moonshine Bootlegging Gave Rise to NASCAR". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Racing legend outran the law". newsobserver.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "NASCAR founded - Feb 21, 1948 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Layford, Bob. Built for Speed. Courage Books. p. 29. ISBN 0762404418.
- "History of the Daytona 500". usatoday.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Driver Richard Petty Career Statistics - Racing-Reference.info". racing-reference.info. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Car Facts | Pirelli World Challenge". www.World-Challenge.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- "Off-Road Racer: The Grandfather of Off-Road Racing: BAJA 1000 - race-deZert.com". race-dezert.com. 21 December 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "NORRA: National Off-Road Racing Association, Home of the Mexican 1000 Rally". www.norra.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Gifford, Clive (2006). Racing: The Ultimate Motorsports Encyclopedia. Kingfisher. ISBN 9780753460405.