The Jaguar V12 engine is a V12 internal combustion engine produced by Jaguar Cars. The engine was based on a prototype design by Claude Baily for an intended Le Mans car—the Jaguar XJ13. The XJ13 project was terminated in 1966 before the car was ever entered into competition, but under the direction of Jaguar Chief Engineer William Heynes the V12 engine design was reworked by engineers Walter Hassan and Harry Mundy into a production-ready version, first installed in the Series 3 Jaguar E-Type of 1971. The V12 was the second production engine design in Jaguar's history. The all-aluminium block was fitted with removable wet iron liners, complete with single overhead camshaft aluminium heads with two valves per cylinder. It was regarded as one of the premier power plants of the 1970s and 1980s.
Initial designs for a V12 engine were produced by engineer Claude Baily as early as 1951, with a view to using it in a Le Mans car. Baily's original 8.0 L design used double overhead camshafts heads sharing the same basic layout as the XK6 engine, in order to allow for a relatively high redline. Even after Jaguar withdrew from racing in 1957 the V12 design continued to be refined, and Baily proposed a range of displacements from 7.6 L (sharing 87 mm bore and 106 mm stroke measurements with the 3.8 L XK6) down to 5.0 L (sharing the 2.4 L XK6's 83 mm bore and 76.5 mm stroke). In 1962 Baily was instructed to begin prototype tooling and bench testing of a 5.0 L design, having settled on an 87 mm bore and 70 mm stroke.
By 1964 several incarnations of the V12 engine were being tested, including versions meant for racing and others for installation into production cars. An all-aluminium quad-cam design with fuel injection was created for the XJ13, while cast iron blocks and heads, and other double and single overhead cam head designs were created for use in a production road car version. These production versions of the engine were tested in Mark X saloons.
After the XJ13 project was cancelled the team of Hassan and Mundy designed a new single overhead cam head, with the camshaft lobes acting directly on vertically-inclined valves through bucket tappets. This was similar to the cylinder head design of the contemporary Rover 2000, with which the Jaguar V12 also shared the use of dished 'Heron' pistons. These changes reduced complexity, weight, size and noise, and were anticipated to help the engine meet future emissions standards.
The revised head design by Hassan and Mundy also had longer, more restrictive inlet ports sacrificing top-end power but which—along with an increase in displacement to 5.3 litres (5,344 cc) (90 mm bore x 70 mm stroke)—greatly improved performance at lower and mid-range engine speeds, which was more desirable in heavier luxury cars. The chain-driven SOHC heads and the softer valve springs fitted to reduce valve train noise resulted in the red line being lowered to 6,500 rpm from the 8,000 rpm of the original DOHC design. The engine was continuously refined with various carburettor and fuel injection arrangements before finally seeing production in the Series III E-Type in 1971.
The 5.3 litres (5,344 cc) production engine had an oversquare 90 mm (3.54 in) bore x 70 mm (2.76 in) stroke, producing 242 hp (180 kW; 245 PS) to 295 hp (220 kW; 299 PS) (depending on emission controls and compression ratio), and up to 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) of torque in fuel-injected form. Right from the start of production in 1971 the V12 engine had Lucas OPUS (Oscillating Pick-Up System) electronic ignition. Initially the OPUS ignition amplifier unit was secured directly to the engine between the cylinder heads and had problems due to overheating. In later cars the ignition amplifier had been moved away from the engine where it could get air flow for cooling. Originally the V12 was supposed to use an advanced fuel injection system under development by AE Brico but this plan was cancelled at a late stage, possibly due to concerns that the design was too similar to Bosch products. The V12 as used in the Series 3 E-Types, Series 1 XJ12 and early Series 2 XJ12s (1973-April 1975) had four side draft Zenith-Stromberg carburettors. After April 1975, the V12 engine used in the Series 2 XJ12 and the new XJ-S had a licensed copy of the Bosch D-Jetronic system adapted by Lucas for use on the V12.
This version was used in the following cars:
- 1971-1974 Jaguar E-Type
- 1975–1981 Jaguar XJS
- 1972–1981 Jaguar XJ12 (Series 1 and 2)
- 1973–1981 Daimler Double-Six (Series 1 and 2)
- 1972-1981 Panther J.72
- 1974-1985 Panther De Ville
5.3 Litre HE
A "high-efficiency" (HE) version of the engine debuted in 1981, using special high-swirl design cylinder heads designed by Swiss racing driver Michael May. May's design consisted of a swirl chamber at the exhaust valve with a channel around the intake valve. The use of conventional flat-topped pistons in lieu of the original design's dished type allowed squish from the compression stroke to push the air through the channel around the intake valve to the chamber below the exhaust valve, causing turbulent swirling flow around the spark plug (which had been relocated near the exhaust valve at the top of the chamber). This design created a stratified charge, allowing the engine to run at an unusually high compression ratio for the time (10.5:1 to 12.5:1, depending on market and year) while running a relatively lean fuel mixture. In any given market power levels remained similar to the previous model, but fuel economy was improved by nearly 50%. A new fuel injection system called "Digital P" featuring a digital ECU with integrated manifold air pressure transducer was installed, replacing the older analogue control unit and remote pressure sensor from Bosch's original D-Jetronic design. (However, cars sold in Australia, Sweden and Switzerland continued to use the D-Jetronic system until at least 1985.)
The OPUS ignition was replaced by Lucas's Constant Energy Ignition (CEI) in 1982, to more reliably deliver spark. Series 3 XJ12 and Daimler Double Six cars used the CEI system until the end of their production in 1992, but it was superseded in the XJ-S in mid-1989 by another from Magneti Marelli. The Marelli ignition system was used until the end of XJ-S production, and on the 6.0 L (5,993 cc) version used in the XJ81 four-door saloons made in 1993 and 1994.
The 5.3 HE was used in the following applications:
- 1981–1992 Jaguar XJ12 (Series 3)
- 1981–1992 Jaguar XJ-S
- 1981–1992 Daimler Double-Six (Series 3)
6.0 Litre HE
The engine was stroked to 78.5 mm (3.09 in) in 1992 for a displacement of 5,993 cc (6.0 L; 365.7 cu in) to make this one of the most powerful Jaguar production engines to date at 318 bhp (322 PS; 237 kW) at 5,400 rpm and 336 lb⋅ft (456 N⋅m) at 3,750 rpm. The XJR-S stayed in the line until 1993 with power raised at 333 bhp (338 PS; 248 kW) at 5250 rpm and 365 lb⋅ft (495 N⋅m) at 3650 rpm of torque. The 6.0 litres (5,993 cc) engine on X305 used a new Nippondenso distributorless crank-fired ignition system with coil packs very similar to Ford EDIS-6 units. The last Jaguar V12 engine was produced on 17 April 1997.
The 6.0 HE was used in the following cars:
- 1992–1995 Jaguar XJS
- 1991–1993 Jaguar XJR-S 6.0
- 1993–1997 Jaguar XJ12 (XJ81 and X300)
- 1993–1997 Daimler Double-Six (XJ81 and X300)
In 1985, Tom Walkinshaw Racing became Jaguar's official team in World Endurance Championship, taking over the project from American team Group 44. Their first car, XJR6, used the 6.0 L (5,993 cc) engine, but in the following year the engine was upgraded to 6.9 L and in 1988 the XJR9 used the engine's most famous displacement of 7.0 L (6,995 cc). By 1991, the V12 was good for 7.4 L inside the XJR12, developing an impressive 750 bhp (559 kW; 760 PS)
TWR also upgraded production Jaguar cars (usually XJRS's), with a variety of styling, handling and performance modifications. Most of the cars thus modified were straight from the Jaguar factory and sold through Jaguar dealerships.
By 1989, TWR were selling moderate numbers of XJRS's fitted with a 6.0 litres (5,993 cc) version of the V12, which pre-dated the Jaguar production version by some 3 years.
Lister Cars, a well-known Jaguar tuner with a long history of technical collaboration with the British automaker, made frequent use of this powerplant. The first Jaguar Lister XJRS's were built by the company BLE Automotive in Erdington, Birmingham in the early 1980s until the Lister brand was passed on to WP Automotive of Leatherhead. In 1991, they fitted the 7.0 L; 426.9 cu in (6,995 cc) version of the engine, with a 94 mm × 84 mm (3.70 in × 3.31 in) bore and stroke, into a modified Jaguar XJS, which was rebadged Lister Le Mans. This engine officially produced 546 hp (407 kW; 554 PS) and 580 lb⋅ft (786 N⋅m). From 1993, Lister Cars owner Laurence Pearce produced the company's first in house design the Lister Storm, which, naturally, continued using the V12 engine, both on the road and on the track, the car becoming a mainstay of the FIA GT Championship and several national championships for the following decade.
- Ludvigsen, Karl. The V12 Engine — The Untold Story of the Technology, Evolution, Performance and Impact of All V12-Engined Cars, Haynes, 2005. ISBN 1-84425-004-0
- Daniels, Jeff. Jaguar — The Engineering Story, Haynes, 2004. ISBN 1-84425-030-X
- "Jaguar XJ13 - Building the Legend". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "The technical history of the Jaguar V12 engine". AJ6 Engineering. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Jaguar V12 explained by Walter Hassan and Harry Mundy". Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Thorley, Nigel. Jaguar — All the Cars, Haynes, 2003. ISBN 978-1-84425-693-8
- "LUCAS EFI". AJ6 Engineering. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- Series III Service Manual, AKM 9006 (5th ed.). Jaguar Cars Limited. 1988. p. 05—4.
- "1992 Jaguar XJR-S 6.0". carfolio.com. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "List of Jaguar XJS and XJ variants that were modified by Lister". Lister. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013.
|Sports||SS 90||SS 100||Production interrupted by World War II||XK120||XK140||XK150||E-Type S1||E-Type S2||E-Type S3||XJ-S|
|Saloon||SS 1 / SS 2||Mark 1||Mark 2, 240, 340|
|SS 1½ litre||Jaguar 1½ litre||S-Type||XJ-C|
|SS 2½ litre||Jaguar 2½ litre||420||XJ6 S1||XJ6 S2|
|SS 3½ litre||Jaguar 3½ litre||Mk V||Mk VII||Mk VIII||Mk IX||Mk X||420G||XJ12 S1||XJ12 S2|
|Racing||C-Type||D-Type||E-Type||XJ13||XJ-C||XJ41 / XJ42|
|Ownership||Independent (SS Cars Ltd)||Independent (renamed Jaguar Cars)||BMH||British Leyland|