From 1887–1889 Liénard was a student at the École Polytechnique and from 1889–1892 at the École des mines de Paris. From 1892–1895 he was a mining engineer in Valencia, Marseille, and Angers. From 1895–1908 he was professor at the École des Mines de Saint-Étienne and from 1908–1911 he was professor of electrical engineering at the École des Mines de Paris. In World War I he served in the French Army.
Liénard worked in the fields of electricity, magnetism, and mechanics. In 1898 (and two years after him Emil Wiechert), he derived what is now called the Liénard–Wiechert potentials. He also investigated problems related to the elasticity and strength of materials, and wrote papers on thermodynamics and hydrodynamics.
Along with M. H. Chipart, Liénard developed the Liénard–Chipart criterion for determining the stability of a continuous-time system of equations.
- Marc Jouguet (1958), "La vie et l'oeuvre scientifique de Alfred-Marie Liénard", Exposé fait en séance mensuelle de la Société française des Electriciens, le 4 décembre
- Annales.org: Alfred-Marie Liénard